The Winchester rifles were chambered for .32 and .35 caliber straight-walled rounds which developed much less velocity than the Remington line – around 1400fps (although the Winchester 1907 was used the larger .351 Winchester round, and the 1910 model the even larger .401 Winchester round).By using lower powered ammunition, Winchester was able to design the 1905 as a simple blowback action, using a large weight inside the handguard fixed to the bolt.
It was simply impossible to reequip the army with new modern rifles in a short time, and maintaining two different infantry rifle cartridges would have been a strain on the supply chain.
It also used an excellent 7mm rimless cartridge instead of the then-standard 8mm Lebel round.
The Lebel cartridge was rimmed and heavily tapered – good for its time, but rendered obsolete by new developments and not ideal for self-loading designs.
Although it was made from scratch, the Cei-Rigotti design uses the common bolt action as a starting point.
It uses a receiver and bolt design from a Carcano, and uses a short-stroke gas piston under the barrel in conjunction a cam to open and close the bolt.