Women could not be included in this analysis because they were not asked if they smoked cigars.
The median age of male participants in 1982 was 57 years; none were younger than 30 years of age.
Former cigar smokers had smaller increases in risk of mortality from these same cancers.
There was no clear overall association between either current or former cigar smoking and pancreatic or bladder cancer mortality.
Table 3 The increased risk of lung cancer in our study was substantially larger than the twofold increased risk reported in the three earlier U. cohort studies that compared cigar-only smokers with never smokers (11,13,14). However, important differences in duration of cigar smoking between the American Cancer Society's CPS-I cohort (started in 1959) and CPS-II cohort (started in 1982) appear unlikely.
All Cox models were also adjusted for alcohol use (no regular use, less than one drink per day, one to two drinks per day, three drinks per day, four or more drinks per day) and use of snuff or chewing tobacco (never, former, or current). veterans: report on eight and one-half years of observation. Epidemiological approaches to the study of cancer and other chronic diseases.
A small number of men whose level of alcohol consumption could not be determined (n = 312) were not included in the models.