Capital dating back to 1000 ad

While the old amphitheater was abandoned (the Christians disliked gladiatorial contests), the hippodrome was enlarged for chariot races.One of Constantine’s early concerns was to provide enough water for the citizenry.A convert to Arianism, Constantius II‘s death would place the already tenuous status of Christianity in the empire in jeopardy.His successor, Julian the Apostate, a student of Greek and Roman philosophy and culture (and the first emperor born in Constantinople), would become the last pagan emperor.

The church would be destroyed by fire in 404 CE, rebuilt by Theodosius II, destroyed and rebuilt again under Justinian in 532 CE.

Constantius II defeated his brothers (and any other challengers) and became the empire’s sole emperor.

The only individual he spared was his cousin Julian, only five years old at the time and not considered a viable threat; however, the young man would surprise his older cousin and one day becomes an emperor himself, Julian the Apostate.

When Lucinius assumed power in the east in 313 CE, Constantine challenged and ultimately defeated him at the Battle of Chrysopolis, thereby reuniting the empire.

Constantine was unsure where to locate his new capital. He understood the infrastructure of the city was declining; its economy was stagnant and the only source of income was becoming scarce.