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artifact: any manually portable product of human workmanship (see feature).

In its broadest sense includes tools, weapons, ceremonial items, art objects, all industrial waste, and all floral and faunal remains modified by human activity.

electron spin resonance (ESR): a chronometric dating technique based upon the behavior of electrons in crystals exposed to naturally occurring radioactivity; used to date limestone, coral, shell, teeth, and other materials.

Enables trapped electrons within bone and shell to be measured without the heating that thermoluminescence requires.

those dying from natural causes or from non-human predation) or the hunting by humans or other predators of the most vulnerable individuals.amino-acid racemization: a method used in the dating of both human and animal bone.Its special significance is that with a small sample (10g) it can be applied to material up to 100,000 years old, i.e. ancillary sample: any non-artifactual materials collected by archaeologists to aid in dating, paleoenvironmental reconstruction, or other interpretations - e.g.Variations in the ratio of two oxygen isotopes in the calcium carbonate of these shells give a sensitive indicator of sea temperature at the time the organisms were alive.diatom analysis: a method of environmental reconstruction based on plant microfossils.